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These items are called inclusions - foreign bodies of rock or mineral enclosed within another rock.
Because the sedimentary rock had to have formed around the object for it to be encased within the layers, geologists can establish relative dates between the inclusions and the surrounding rock.
We'll even visit the Grand Canyon to solve the mystery of the Great Unconformity!
Imagine that you're a geologist, studying the amazing rock formations of the Grand Canyon.
Free 5-day trial Discover how geologists study the layers in sedimentary rock to establish relative age.
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The highest layers tell them what happened more recently, and the lowest layers tell them what happened longer ago.
Let's say we find out, through numerical dating, that the rock layer shown above is 70 million years old.